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The domain name system (DNS) is essentially a system that assigns hard-to-remember IP addresses easy-to-remember names. Before DNS, computers would have to connect to each other using IP addresses, which are long strings of numbers like 127.0.0.1.
The domain name system assigns a name to this number (domain name), which makes it easier for visitors to the site to find it again.
When someone types in a domain name, the DNS converts into a language that a machine can understand - the IP address that was assigned to the domain name.
Thus the DNS allows us to type in "www.google.com" and have Google.com's homepage appear on our browsers, rather than having to type in a string of numbers. Either would work, but one is much easier for us to remember.
An A record can point a host name to an IP address. You can add multiple host records for a domain name.
A CNAME, or canonical name record, points a hostname with no other records to another valid hostname. The canonical name you use shouldn’t have any other DNS records associated with it. CNAME’s should only be used in very few instances. For common aliases and host names use an A record instead.
A bare CNAME (ie: no “www”) will break MX records and not allow email to work. We recommend placing the CNAME on the “www” subdomain.
If you do not understand what CNAME’s are used for we do not recommend you tinker with them because the misuse of CNAME records can cause problems with the resolution of your domain name (you’ll bring your site down, and that’s no good for anyone).
MX records are used to deliver email associated with your domain name, such as email@example.com, to the appropriate mail server, for instance, mail.yourdomain.com. If you are using your own mail server, you must do the following.
TXT or text records can be used to enter arbitrary text strings into a DNS entry.
An IPV6 (AAAA) record, is much like an A records, only it can point a host name to an IPV6 IP address. You can add multiple host records for a domain name.